When dealing with insect pests, the last resort for farmers and ranchers is insecticide, said Texas A&M Agrilife Extension Entomologist Robert Bowling.
Insecticides tend to be the most costly. But sanitation, biological control and crop rotation can all help.
"Most of those options have a very http://pestsuk.com/ireland/armagh/pest-control/affordable-experts.php minimal cost," Bowling said. "Usually, when we http://www.extension.umn.edu/garden/insects/find/bed-bugs-in-residences/ recommend an insecticide, it's kind of a last-ditch effort."
Sanitation can cost money in labor but may be as simple as removing waste that can attract flies.
Biological controls are ways of capitalizing on natural enemies of the pests. There are parasites that can help reduce aphids and fly larva. But it can be difficult to keep the predators or parasites from crawling or flying away. Parasite use is best for confined areas, such as horse stalls.
Tiny non-stinging wasps can be used in horse stalls to break the fly life cycle, by eating the fly larva and laying eggs in the fly pupa.